2018.12.18 Tissues as Active Systems
题 目：Tissues as Active Systems
报告人：Professor Jacques Prost
Member of the French and European Academy of Sciences
Emeritus CNRS Research director Curie Institute, Paris
Distinguished Visiting Professor, Mechanobiology Institute National University of Singapore
After introducing the notion of homeostatic pressure, I will subsequently introduce dynamical equations, which exhibit fluid like behavior on time scales long compared to duplication and apoptosis times, in the vicinity of homeostatic conditions. Subsequently, I will describe stress-clamp experiments, which provide numbers on the effects of stress on cell division and apoptosis and introduce the idea of “active” tissue, which allows us to understand some aspects of experimental results. Then I will describe a dynamical transition in nematic epithelia which we predicted about ten years ago in the context of active gels: a nematic epithelial tissue placed on stripes of different width, switches from a perfectly quiescent state to a spontaneously shearing state, simply by changing the stripe width! Eventually, I will shortly give some conjectures about long time electric effects on polar tissues.
Prof. Prost is emeritus CNRS research director at the Curie Institute in Paris, and distinguished visiting professor at NUS.After developing a research activity on Soft Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics with a strong emphasis on Liquid Crystals, he has been interested in the physics-biology interface. In particular, he has been active in the description of molecular motors, hearing, cell and tissue dynamics for which he introduced the concept of “active gels” and that of homeostatic pressure for tissues.
He was successively at the origin of the “Bordeaux Liquid Crystal Group”, of the “Laboratory of Theoretical Physical Chemistry” at ESPCI (Paris) and of the “Physical Chemistry Laboratory” at the Curie Institute (Paris).
He is a member of the French and European Academy of Sciences and has been awarded the 2007 Del Duca European Grand Prix and 2016 Beverly and Raymond Sackler prize in Biophysics.